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Main Racial Background (Pre-1997 Revised OMB Standards), self-reported or interviewer reported


RACEA reports the race of the respondent. If not ascertained, the race and/or ethnicity were assigned based on relationship to other members of the DU using a priority ordering that gave precedence to blood relatives in the immediate family.

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For 1996-2001, respondents were asked to identify their own race, and allowed to choose "Black," "White," "Aleut, Eskimo," "American Indian," or "Asian or Pacific Islander." Beginning in 2002, the specifications for determining race were changed so that individuals can report multiple races. Respondents were first asked to identify their races as "White - no other race reported," "Black - no other race reported," "American Indian/Alaska Native - no other race reported," "Asian - no other race reported," "Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander - no other race reported," or "Multiple races reported." For respondents who selected multiple races, they were then asked separate follow up questions to determine if "Asian," "Black," and/or "White" are among the multiple races they report. For the variable RACEA, the responses to these questions are combined, adding categories for persons who report multiple races, such as, "Multiple race - including Asian, excluding Black, excluding White" or "Multiple race - Excluding Asian, including Black, including White."


  • 1996-2021: All persons.


  • 1996-2021



This variable has no flags.